Millions of individuals each day have their lives powered by lithium-ion batteries.

Due to its portability, high energy density, and capacity for charging, this technology is becoming more and more commonplace in everything from laptops and mobile phones to hybrids and electric vehicles.

So how does it function?

You may watch this animation to see how it’s done.

What Is Basic

Anode, cathode, separator, electrolyte, and two current collectors make up a battery (positive and negative).

Lithium is stored in the anode and cathode.

Positively charged lithium ions are transported through the separator by the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode and vice versa.

A charge is produced at the positive current collector by the movement of the lithium ions, which releases free electrons in the anode.

The electrical current then travels from the positive current collector to the negative current collector after passing via a powered device (such as a computer or mobile phone).

The separator prevents electrons from moving freely within the battery.


The anode transfers lithium ions to the cathode when the battery discharges and produces an electric current, which causes a flow of electrons from one side to the other.

The converse occurs when the gadget is plugged in: Lithium ions are given out by the cathode and received by the anode.

Power Density vs Energy Density

The terms “energy density” and “power density” are used most often in relation to batteries.

The amount of energy a battery can store in relation to its mass is measured in watt-hours per kilogram (Wh/kg).

Power density, which is expressed in watts per kilogram (W/kg), is the ratio of the power a battery can provide to its bulk.

Consider emptying a pool to help you visualize this better.

Power density is like emptying the pool as rapidly as possible, but energy density is like the size of the pool.

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Written by Bob Matsuoka
Bob Matsuoka is a blogger and founder of RVing Beginner blog. He has been blogging for over five years, writing about his own family’s RV adventures, tips for people who are interested in buying an RV or taking their family on an adventure by RV.